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Samples

To really get running using the LiteSpeed Ingress Controller, you will need to configure it to access your applications running within the cluster. Most applications are managed with helm charts and the LiteSpeed Ingress Controller is no exception. However, scripts are used here to allow you to see each step in the process and to manually create the process if you so choose to avoid the complexities of helm.

These sets of samples install a simple backend with all of the plumbing you need to access it. It consists of sample scripts and YAML files are distributed in a single compressed TAR file in the LiteSpeed helm distribution directory. They require that you have access to your Kubernetes system with kubectl and that the LiteSpeed Ingress Controller is up and running.

  • olsup.sh and olsdown.sh are a simple set of scripts which bring up a containerized OpenLiteSpeed as a backend, accessible through the load balancer.
  • examplesup.sh and examplesdown.sh are a modified version of the samples provided with the NGINX load balancer, using the containerized echoheaders backend.

Getting the Samples

The easiest way to get the samples is to download the TAR file and extract it directly.

  • To download the file, navigate in your browser to https://github.com/litespeedtech/helm-chart/tree/main/helm-chart-sources/ls-k8s-webadc/samples and then download the file ls-k8s-webadc-VERSION.tgz (for example: ls-k8s-webadc-0.1.18.tgz) and copy that file to a directory you'd like to extract it to.
  • To extract the file, in a terminal, cd to the directory you wish to extract it to and untar it. For example: tar xf ls-k8s-webadc-0.1.18.tgz. This will create a ls-k8s-webadc directory beneath it with some simple sample scripts and sample .yaml files.

Running the samples

All of the samples must be run in the environment that you can run kubectl in. You can verify this by verifying that you can see all of the existing resources:

$ kubectl get all -A

This should show you a bunch of resources.

All of the samples require that you use the namespace sandbox. If this namespace does not already exist, you should create it:

$ kubectl create namespace sandbox

If you choose to use a different namespace you will need to modify the second line of each script.

olsup.sh and olsdown.sh

This sample installs a preconfigured cloud based version of OpenLiteSpeed with limited TLS support into your cluster and can uninstall it completely. This lets you see how each step is performed. The olsup.sh script looks like this:

#!/bin/bash
NAMESPACE="sandbox"
echo "Create the OLS sample"
echo "Create the TLS secret.  In production you would use previously created certificate and key files.
openssl genrsa -out ols-ingress.com.key 2048
openssl req -new -key ols-ingress.com.key -out ols-ingress.com.csr -subj "/CN=ols-ingress.com"
openssl x509 -req -days 3650 -in ols-ingress.com.csr -signkey ols-ingress.com.key -out ols-ingress.com.crt
echo "Make Kubernetes aware of your certificate"
kubectl create secret tls ols-ingress.com --cert ols-ingress.com.crt --key ols-ingress.com.key -n $NAMESPACE
echo "Bring up the OLS Ingress environment"
kubectl create -f examples/ols-backend.yaml -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl create -f examples/ols-backend-svc.yaml -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl create -f examples/ols-backend-ingress.yaml -n $NAMESPACE
echo "The IP address to access it"
kubectl get ing ols-ingress -n $NAMESPACE
#curl https://IPADDRESS/ -H 'Host: ols-ingress.com' -k

NAMESPACE

Your application will need to run in a specified name space. The LiteSpeed Ingress Controller is setup in helm to run in the ls-k8s-webadc namespace. It is a good practice to have all of the components of your backend in the same namespace. In our example we chose sandbox but made it a variable specified at the top of the script so that it would be easy to change. Note that every kubectl command includes a -n $NAMESPACE parameter to have all of the components running in the same namespace.

Creating the certificate and key

In a real world application, you will purchase a certificate and key from a well-known provider and use that in the next step. However, to provide a working sample openssl is used to generate a key file (ols-ingress.com.key) and a self-signed certificate (ols-ingress.com.crt) which is used in the next step.

Creating the TLS secret for your certificate and key files

kubectl create secret tls ols-ingress.com --cert ols-ingress.com.crt --key ols-ingress.com.key -n $NAMESPACE
Kubernetes runs in the cloud and thus has its own tools to access files. TLS certificate and key files are stored in a Kubernetes secret. In the sample script the two files created above are directly pointed at to create the secret named ols-ingress.com in the sandbox namespace.

Creating the Deployment

.yaml files are used to specify specific operations and detailed parameters. The examples/ols-backend.yaml file creates the ols-backend deployment which is used in subsequent steps:

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: ols-backend
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: ols-backend
  replicas: 2
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: ols-backend
    spec:
      terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 60
      containers:
      - name: ols-backend
        image: litespeedtech/ols-backend
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        livenessProbe:
          httpGet:
            path: /healthz
            port: 80
            scheme: HTTP
          initialDelaySeconds: 30
          timeoutSeconds: 5
        ports:
        - containerPort: 80
        - containerPort: 443
Some of the interesting parameters in the .yaml file:

  • metadata.name: ols-backend (metadata followed by name indented) is the name used by services or other Kubernetes resources to access the pods as a group.
  • replicas: 2 The number of instances (pods) of this image that will be created, each on a separate node. If the number of available nodes is less than 2, it will start the pod on a single node. You may want to use more replicas for extra scalability/redundancy but there is additional cost by the cloud provider.
  • image: litespeedtech/ols-backend This is the image on the docker repository that is pulled to create the pod.
  • ports.containerPort: 80 and ports.containerPort: 443 The ports that the pod can access from outside.

Creating the Service

The examples/backend-svc.yaml file creates the service which can then be exposed by an ingress. Quite a small file:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: ols-backend-svc
spec:
  selector:
    app: ols-backend
  ports:
  - port: 80
    targetPort: 80
    name: ols-backend-http
  - port: 443
    targetPort: 443
    name: ols-backend-https

Some interesting parameters are:

  • metadata.name: ols-backend-svc The name used by ingresses or other Kubernetes resources to access the service.
  • selector.app: ols-backend The name of the existing Deployment which needs to be already running.
  • ports.port: 80 The external port of the pod. Usually matches containerPort above. Parameters with a leading dash are repeated parameters and ports.port: 443 is indeed repeated to indicate an additional set of ports.
  • ports.targetPort: 80 The port available to the application inside the pod. Again ports.targetPort: 443 is a repeated instance of that parameter to indicate a separate port.

Creating the Ingress

The Ingress is the object that is exposed to the LiteSpeed Ingress Controller. The examples/ols-backend-ingress.yaml file creates the ingress which is exposed to the LiteSpeed Ingress Controller for access to the wider internet:

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: ols-ingress
  annotations:
    kubernetes.io/ingress.class: litespeedtech.com/lslbd
spec:
  #ingressClassName: ls-k8s-webadc
  tls:
  - secretName: ols-ingress.com
  rules:
  - host: ols-ingress.com
    http:
      paths:
      - path: /
        pathType: ImplementationSpecific
        backend:
          service:
            name: ols-backend-svc
            port:
              number: 80

Some interesting parameters are:

  • metadata.name: ols-ingress The name used by the LiteSpeed Ingress Controller or other Kubernetes resources to access the ingress.
  • annotations.kubernetes.io/ingress.class: litespeedtech.com/lslbd Lets the LiteSpeed Ingress Controller know that this is an ingress it is to process. This allows you to have multiple load balancers in the same cluster. Note that you can also use spec.ingressClassName: ls-k8s-webadc as an alternative method.
  • spec.ingressClassName: ls-k8s-webadc This is commented out in the example above, but is an alternative method to specify the load balancer to process the request if you do not specify the annotation.
  • tls.secretName: ols-ingress.com The name of the TLS secret created above.
  • rules.host: ols-ingress.com The name of the domain to export.
  • path: / The path exported by the ingress. A combination of the rules.host and path are required to match for the request to be routed.
  • pathType: ImplementationSpecific The LiteSpeed Ingress Controller treats all pathType specifications as ImplementationSpecific at this time and are routed as if they were of type Prefix with a trailing slash (whether specified or not).
  • service.name: ols-backend-svc Must match the name of the metadata.name of the Service definition which must already exist.
  • port.number: 80 Must match a port number of the service. Note that even though the ingress does not define a port 443, the LiteSpeed Ingress Controller will still service HTTPS requests because a secret is defined.

Testing it

The last two lines in the olsup.sh are intended to help you test the load balancer's access to the backend.

  • kubectl get ing ols-ingress -n $NAMESPACE will resolve to kubectl get ingress ols-ingress -n sandbox in the example and will show the exported IP address generated by Kubernetes. This may take a few manual interations as Kubernetes may need several minutes to get an address assigned.

In our environment we ran:

$ kubectl get ing ols-ingress -n sandbox
NAME          CLASS    HOSTS             ADDRESS          PORTS     AGE
ols-ingress   <none>   ols-ingress.com   143.244.212.14   80, 443   21m
  • #curl https://IPADDRESS/ -H 'Host: ols-ingress.com' -k In our environment we ran curl https://143.244.212.14/ -H 'Host: ols-ingress.com' -k which displays the output of the default OpenLiteSpeed banner screen. You specify the -H 'Host: ols-ingress.com' to indicate that it should transmit the Host header entry as we are not able to immediately use the domain name. You specify -k to support a self-signed cert.

To run using the proper domain name, see your Cloud Provider's documentation as to the steps to add a DNS name using the address assigned by Kubernetes.

Taking it down with olsdown.sh

The olsdown.sh script looks like this:

#!/bin/bash
NAMESPACE="sandbox"
echo "Delete the OLS Sample"
kubectl delete ingress ols-ingress -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl delete services ols-backend-svc -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl delete deployment ols-backend -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl delete secret ols-ingress.com -n $NAMESPACE
rm ols-ingress.com.crt
rm ols-ingress.com.csr
rm ols-ingress.com.key

The steps are simpler here:

  • NAMESPACE Again you need to use the same namespace to delete the object as you used when creating it.
  • kubectl delete ingress ols-ingress -n $NAMESPACE Deletes the ingress.
  • kubectl delete services ols-backend-svc -n $NAMESPACE Deletes the service.
  • kubectl delete deployment ols-backend -n $NAMESPACE Deletes the deployment.
  • kubectl delete secret ols-ingress.com -n $NAMESPACE Deletes the secret.
  • rm ols-ingress.com.crt, rm ols-ingress.com.csr and rm ols-ingress.com.key delete the certificate and key files created to complete the cleanup.

With olsdown.sh, some of the objects may be in Terminating state for a short while, but they will go away quickly.

examplesup.sh and examplesdown.sh

This sample is a modified version of the sample that comes with the NGINX load balancer, tailored for the LiteSpeed Ingress Controller. Each step and interesting parameters will be documented here.

This script has a number of differences from the OLS scripts above:

  • It uses a number of kubectl commands with command line parameters rather than .yaml files. This may help make the process a bit easier to understand and shows a different method of creating backends.
  • This demonstrates the Ingress method of a simple fanout, where a single domain can use separate paths to route to separate backends

The examplesup.sh script looks like this:

#!/bin/bash
NAMESPACE="sandbox"
kubectl create deployment echoheadersx --image=k8s.gcr.io/echoserver:1.10 -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl create deployment echoheadersy --image=k8s.gcr.io/echoserver:1.10 -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl expose deployment echoheadersx --port=80 --target-port=8080 --name=echoheaders-x -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl expose deployment echoheadersy --port=80 --target-port=8080 --name=echoheaders-y -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl create -f examples/ingress.yaml -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl get ing echomap -n $NAMESPACE

Create Deployment

The first line of the script sets up the namespace as in the OLS scripts above. The next two lines create the deployment without using .yaml files - all with command line parameters.

kubectl create deployment echoheadersx --image=k8s.gcr.io/echoserver:1.10 -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl create deployment echoheadersy --image=k8s.gcr.io/echoserver:1.10 -n $NAMESPACE

These two lines create two separate deployments taking the place of examples/ols-backend.yaml.:

  • The deployments are named echoheadersx and echoheadersy respectively replaying the metadata.name parameters in the .yaml file.
  • They use the docker image k8s.gcr.io/echoserver:1.10 taking the place of the image parameter.

Expose Deployment

Exposing the deployment does some of the task done in the creation of the service in examples/backend-svc.yaml.

kubectl expose deployment echoheadersx --port=80 --target-port=8080 --name=echoheaders-x -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl expose deployment echoheadersy --port=80 --target-port=8080 --name=echoheaders-y -n $NAMESPACE
  • name=echoheaders-x and name=echoheaders-y respectively represent the metadata.name in all .yaml files which name the service.
  • The created deployment names echoheadersx and echoheadersy are used as selector.app is used in examples/backend-svc.yaml.
  • port=80 (external port of the pod) and target-port=8080 (internal port of the pod) represent the port and target-port as in the ports specification in examples/backend-svc.yaml.

Creating the Ingress

Creating the ingress makes the service and pods available to the load balancer. examples/ingress.yaml:

# An Ingress with 2 hosts and 3 or 4 endpoints
apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: echomap
spec:
  rules:
  - host: foo.bar.com
    http:
      paths:
      - path: /foo
        pathType: ImplementationSpecific
        backend:
          service:
            name: echoheaders-x
            port:
              number: 80
      - path: /bar
        pathType: ImplementationSpecific
        backend:
          service:
            name: echoheaders-x
            port:
              number: 80
      - path: /com
        pathType: ImplementationSpecific
        backend:
          service:
            name: echoheaders-x
            port:
              number: 80
  - host: bar.baz.com
    http:
      paths:
      - path: /bar
        pathType: ImplementationSpecific
        backend:
          service:
            name: echoheaders-y
            port:
              number: 80
      - path: /bar2
        pathType: ImplementationSpecific
        backend:
          service:
            name: echoheaders-y
            port:
              number: 80
      - path: /foo/bar
        pathType: ImplementationSpecific
        backend:
          service:
            name: echoheaders-x
            port:
              number: 80
      - path: /fooby
        pathType: ImplementationSpecific
        backend:
          service:
            name: echoheaders-x
            port:
              number: 80

It is longer than examples/ols-backend-ingress.yaml because it demonstrates two concepts:

  • Creation of completly separate domains: foo.bar.com and bar.baz.com which use the same service echoheaders-x.
  • Note that all of the paths do not include the root. Thus if something is specified, like foo.bar.com/not-defined the load balancer itself will return a 404 Not Found error
  • Simple fanout. In the bar.baz.com domain separate paths point to separate backend services.
  • bar.baz.com/bar/ and bar.baz.com/bar2/ both point to service echoheaders-y
  • bar.baz.com/foo/bar/ and bar.baz.com/fooby/ both point to service echoheaders-x

Testing the example

This example does not create a certificate or create an accessible TLS secret so it must be run with http.

In our environment we ran:

$ kubectl get ing echomap -n sandbox
NAME      CLASS    HOSTS                     ADDRESS          PORTS   AGE
echomap   <none>   foo.bar.com,bar.baz.com   143.244.212.14   80      17h
  • #curl http://IPADDRESS/foo/abc -H 'Host: foo.bar.com' In our environment we ran curl http://143.244.212.14/foo/abc -H 'Host: foo.bar.com' which displays the output of the echoheaders screen. You specify the -H 'Host: foo.bar.com' to indicate that it should transmit the Host header entry as we are not able to immediately use the domain name. Note that the echoheaders output includes the Hostname: echoheadersx (with some trailing characters) indicating that it's using an echoheadersx pod. I add the abc suffix as the specified path is always assumed to be a directory and the contents are what is to be displayed.
  • #curl http://IPADDRESS/abc -H 'Host: foo.bar.com' We ran: curl http://143.244.212.14/abc -H 'Host: foo.bar.com' which returns a 404 Not Found error as there is no definition for the root.
  • #curl http://IPADDRESS/bar/abc -H 'Host: bar.baz.com' We ran: curl http://143.244.212.14/bar/abc -H 'Host: bar.baz.com' which displays the Hostname: echoheadersy.
  • #curl http://IPADDRESS/foo/bar/abc -H 'Host: bar.baz.com' We ran: curl http://143.244.212.14/foo/bar/abc -H 'Host: foo.bar.com' which displays the Hostname: echoheadersx.

To run using the proper domain name, see your Cloud Provider's documentation as to the steps to add a DNS name using the address assigned by Kubernetes.

Taking it down with examplesdown.sh

Run examplesdown.sh to take down the example:

#!/bin/bash
NAMESPACE="sandbox"
kubectl delete ingress echomap -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl delete services echoheaders-x -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl delete services echoheaders-y -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl delete deployment echoheadersx -n $NAMESPACE
kubectl delete deployment echoheadersy -n $NAMESPACE

This basically reverses the steps used in bringing up the example:

  • Delete the ingress with: kubectl delete ingress echomap -n $NAMESPACE
  • Delete the two service definitions with kubectl delete services echoheaders-x -n $NAMESPACE and kubectl delete services echoheaders-y -n $NAMESPACE
  • Delete the two deployments with kubectl delete deployment echoheadersx -n $NAMESPACE and kubectl delete deployment echoheadersy -n $NAMESPACE

Running LiteSpeed Ingress Controller without helm

Two scripts are provided to bring the LiteSpeed Ingress Controller up and down without helm. lsup.sh brings up the controller, lsdown.sh takes it down.

lsup.sh

The load balancer is configured to run in the namespace ls-k8s-webadc. If this namespace does not already exist, you should create it:

$ kubectl create namespace ls-k8s-webadc

The lsup.sh script looks like this:

#!/bin/bash
echo "Bring up the LiteSpeed Ingress controller without using helm"
kubectl create -f examples/default/service-account.yaml -n ls-k8s-webadc
kubectl create -f examples/default/rc-default.yaml -n ls-k8s-webadc
kubectl expose deployment ls-k8s-webadc --type=LoadBalancer --name=ls-k8s-webadc -n ls-k8s-webadc

It creates the ServiceAccount, the ClusterRole and the ClusterRoleBinding, which are all necessary for a load balancer using service-account.yaml. Other than namespace, if you wish to use another one, this .yaml file should not be modified.

apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: ls-k8s-webadc
  namespace: ls-k8s-webadc
---
kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  name: ls-k8s-webadc
rules:
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["nodes", "pods", "endpoints", "configmaps", "secrets", "services"]
  verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
- apiGroups: ["networking.k8s.io"]
  resources: ["ingresses", "ingressclasses"]
  verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
- apiGroups: ["networking.k8s.io"]
  resources: ["ingresses/status"]
  verbs: ["update"]
- apiGroups: ["discovery.k8s.io"]
  resources: ["endpointslices"]
  verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["events"]
  verbs: ["create", "patch"]
---
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  name: ls-k8s-webadc
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: ls-k8s-webadc
  namespace: ls-k8s-webadc
roleRef:
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: ls-k8s-webadc
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io

This creates the Deployment with rc-default.yaml. In this .yaml file you can change a number of options including:

  • The exposed ports particularly with containerPort specified in containers.ports. Note that port 7090 is required as it is used in communications between the Kubernetes environment and the LiteSpeed load balancer itself and should not be changed.
  • The parameters to the LiteSpeed Ingress Controller in containers.args.
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: ls-k8s-webadc
  namespace: ls-k8s-webadc
  labels:
    k8s-app: ls-k8s-webadc
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: ls-k8s-webadc
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: ls-k8s-webadc
        name: ls-k8s-webadc
    spec:
      serviceAccountName: ls-k8s-webadc
      terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 60
      hostNetwork: true
      containers:
      - image: litespeedtech/ls-k8-staging
        name: ls-k8s-webadc
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        livenessProbe:
          httpGet:
            path: /healthz
            # when changing this port, also specify it using --healthz-port in ls-k8s-webadc args.
            port: 11972
            scheme: HTTP
          initialDelaySeconds: 60
          timeoutSeconds: 30
        # use downward API
        env:
          - name: POD_NAME
            valueFrom:
              fieldRef:
                fieldPath: metadata.name
          - name: POD_NAMESPACE
            valueFrom:
              fieldRef:
                fieldPath: metadata.namespace
        ports:
        - containerPort: 80
          hostPort: 80
        - containerPort: 443
          hostPort: 443
        - containerPort: 7090
          hostPort: 7090
        args:
        - /ls-k8s-up.sh
        - --healthz-port=11972
        - --allow-internal-ip=true
        - --lslb-wait-timeout=1200
        - --lslb-enable-ocsp-stapling=true

The last line exposes the load balancer and activates it.

lsdown.sh

The lsdown.sh script deletes the resources created in lsup.sh which results in taking down the controller.

#!/bin/bash
kubectl delete services ls-k8s-webadc -n ls-k8s-webadc
kubectl delete serviceaccount ls-k8s-webadc -n ls-k8s-webadc
kubectl delete clusterrole ls-k8s-webadc -n ls-k8s-webadc
kubectl delete clusterrolebinding ls-k8s-webadc -n ls-k8s-webadc
kubectl delete deployments ls-k8s-webadc -n ls-k8s-webadc

Last update: May 12, 2022